Despite the advances in immunosuppression, renal allograft attrition over time remains unabated due to chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) with interstitial fibrosis (IF) and tubular atrophy (TA). We aimed to evaluate microRNA (miRNA) signatures in CAD with IF/TA and appraise correlation with paired urine samples and potential utility in prospective evaluation of graft function. MiRNA signatures were established between CAD with IF/TA versus normal allografts by microarray. Validation of the microarray results and prospective evaluation of urine samples was performed using real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-qPCR). Fifty-six miRNAs were identified in samples with CAD-IF/TA. Five miRNAs were selected for further validation based on array fold change, p-value and in silico predicted mRNA targets. We confirmed the differential expression of these five miRNAs by RT-qPCR using an independent set of samples. Differential expression was detected for miR-142-3p, miR-204, miR-107 and miR-211 (p < 0.001) and miR-32 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, differential expression of miR-142-3p (p < 0.01), miR-204 (p < 0.01) and miR-211 (p < 0.05) was also observed between patient groups in urine samples. A characteristic miRNA signature for IF/TA that correlates with paired urine samples was identified. These results support the potential use of miRNAs as noninvasive markers of IF/TA and for monitoring graft function.